Banjo Hangout Logo
Banjo Hangout Logo

Premier Sponsors

422
Banjo Lovers Online


Discussion Forum

Hide these ads: join the Players Union!

 All Forums
 Playing the Banjo
 Playing Advice: Bluegrass (Scruggs) Styles
 ARCHIVED TOPIC: An interesting observation - II leads to V Chord.


Please note this is an archived topic, so it is locked and unable to be replied to. You may, however, start a new topic and refer to this topic with a link: http://www.banjohangout.org/archive/165916

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/19/2009:  16:28:36


This will be 'duh' for a lot of folks but I have noticed that frequently the II Chord leads directly to the V Chord in a lot of songs. A few examples can be heard and played in the following songs:

Life's Railway To Heaven
Little White Church
Red Wing
Salty Dog Blues
The Old home Place
Your Cheatin' Heart
Bringing Mary Home
Don't Let Your Deal Go Down
Glendale Train
He Will Set Your Fields On Fire
I Know What It Means To be Lonesome
I'm Using My Bible for A Roadmap

+ many more.....


..almost forgot this one: I Wonder How The Old Folks Are At Home

Here's my point - when you play that Major II Chord you can frequently look to play the V chord next. Another observation - it is a beautiful sound pattern going from the II to the V...
Any comments will be appreciated.

Phil







Edited by - Kemo Sabe on 12/19/2009 18:10:10

beemfrost - Posted - 12/19/2009:  16:50:33


The II chord is the V of the V. So, in G, the II is A which is the V of D ( the V of G). So the II resolves to V in the same way that V resolves to I. It's part of the 'circle of fifths'.

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/19/2009:  17:54:35


beemfrost,

I like your explanation. In my mind and ears the best thing I can take from this is that the II resolves to the V..... it sure seems to do so in the examples I can think of playing. I think we have a nice simple case of theory slapping up against practical banjo playing..... When I started thinking about this II going to V it kept coming back to me that also (duh! on this one) most songs I play end in V...I... thus the 'resolve' word. I had not specifically applied that word 'resolve' to the II going to the V but I think you have nailed the description. So, normally, when playing the V near the end of many songs the next chord is the I; many times when playing the II chord the next chord is the V Chord. I think my original observation has been resolved.

Thank you,

Phil

Klondike Waldo - Posted - 12/19/2009:  18:29:51


There you go. In a major key, the ii chord is minor (that's why the lower case) the (major, thus uppercase) II chord functions exactly as Beemfrost explained it-as the V of V. If you thumb though a Hymn book, you'll find scads of hymns from the late 18th and most of the 19th Centuries with a raised fourth- say a C# in G or a Bnat in F somewhere between the middle and end of the piece- that's the V of V chord pointing you to the V before resolving eventually back to I ( or i if minor)

Jim T - Posted - 12/19/2009:  18:50:38


My version of Salty Dog in Janet's "You Can Teach Yourself" has the I chord (G) going to the VI (E) chord to the II (A) chord and sure enough to the V (D) chord. I'm curious where this VI (E) chord fits into the scheme of things?

It's funny I didn't give all this much thought when I was struggling with learning songs on other bluegrass instruments, but seem more interested in this stuff now that I've become a "student of the banjo" as opposed to learning just to play some songs on the banjo.

Jim

beemfrost - Posted - 12/19/2009:  19:37:06


In the sequence ... C, G, D, A, E ..., each following chord is the V of the preceding chord. The sequence develops both ways. The sequence doesn't repeat, since you need 'perfect fifths' (eight half-steps) to make it work. So eventually sharp and flat keys get into the sequence.

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/19/2009:  19:37:37


Jim T

You have pretty much described at least two other songs also: 'I Know What It Means To Be Lonesome' and 'Don't Let Your Deal Go Down'. In these two songs you go to the VI quicker than in 'Salty Dog Blues' but the chords are pretty much the same. I can't tell you any theory about that VI chord..... I can just tell you that it sounds beautiful in those songs. And thanks for your post.

Phil

ELWOOD - Posted - 12/19/2009:  20:00:41


Wow , Jim that's a great statement in these usually predictable banjo chat"s , Im amazed that you could say so well, what maybe the most important jump in music and life that you are now A" student of the Banjo" welcome brother to the whole wonderful Mystery of Respect for the learning of the craft. I hope this isn't Misunderstood by others , but this is special, ......Steve

mikey5string - Posted - 12/19/2009:  20:28:26


thats a common turnaround in jazz music.

google II V progression or dominant cadence. it has to do with the similarity between the II and V chords.

D7 and Am are pretty close. should get some new ideas for licks based on an Am instead of a D7.

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/19/2009:  21:50:25


Sorry guys I'm not much into the theory side of this discussion but I just ran into another song with the II...V sequence... and that would be in the Chorus to Jingle Bells.

...something like this:... (II) one horse open (V) sleigh - eh!...


Edited by - Kemo Sabe on 12/19/2009 21:55:34

minstrelmike - Posted - 12/20/2009:  09:03:19


The 2-5 progression is the essence of jazz.

Jazz developed out of the dixieland tradition which used the circle of fifths progressions such as Five Foot Two: C E A D G C or Beaumont Rag (ending F F7 C E D G C).

You can look up the circle of fifths here or elsewhere. Basically, you move up a fifth from each note. If you start on C, then the next 5th up is G. The next 5th up from G is D. the next 5th up from D is A and so on and so forth. (If you go the other way around, it is called the circle of fourths).

To me, there are 4 different regular-sounding chord progressions (not modal or Old-Timey). Three of them come from the circle. The 1-4-5 progression is just the two chords on either side of the root. The 2-5 thing _adds_ a jump ahead two 'hours' (on the circle which looks like a clock) and the ragtime one is a jump ahead 3 or 4 hours or notches. (The other progression addition is the 1-3-4 found in Freight Train, Pallet on Your Floor and Tennessee Waltz).

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/20/2009:  09:25:33


minstrelmike -

I do love the sound of the 1-3-4 you talk about in Freight Train, Pallet On Your Floor and other songs. Another song that uses the 1-3-4 progression beautifully: "The Old Home Place".

Thanks for your post.

Phil

minstrelmike - Posted - 12/20/2009:  09:44:08


Another 1-3-4 is the Eagle's Take it to the Limit.

I've always said 1-4-5 covers 90% of modern songs, adding the 2 chord covers 90% of the remaining, yadda, yadda. I think the number is more like 80% but the progression of complexity is the same (and it only applies to modern music, not 'traditional' music such as Old-Time which uses chords (if used at all) from the other direction on the circle).

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/20/2009:  09:50:38


'The Old Home Place' makes beautiful use of the 2-5 and the 1-3-4.....they double dipped on beautiful sounds in this song. I wonder if those little clues might be a hint for possible structure for us wannabe song writers? Everybody I know loves the 'Freight Train' 1-3-4 sound and everything in 'The Old Home Place'.

When I get ready to write my big song - I will use a chord progression of I - IV - V - I. I don't know what it is about that progression but I love the progression. It might not fit into any of the discussions here about theory...

Phil


Edited by - Kemo Sabe on 12/20/2009 10:01:48

tombrien - Posted - 12/20/2009:  11:35:51


I learned when playing piano that the ii V I was a common progression in jazz music, Tom

Ira Gitlin - Posted - 12/20/2009:  14:31:58


And hey, I-vi-ii-V-I is a palindrome!

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/20/2009:  15:32:54


I'm gonna keep talking about Jingle Bells and The Old Home Place so we don't get thrown into the Theory Section.

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/21/2009:  02:47:04


quote:
Originally posted by minstrelmike

.............You can look up the circle of fifths here or elsewhere. Basically, you move up a fifth from each note. If you start on C, then the next 5th up is G. The next 5th up from G is D. the next 5th up from D is A and so on and so forth. (If you go the other way around, it is called the circle of fourths).......


This statement is very interesting to me. Never having had a day of music theory or having played any kind of instrument in my lifetime - a few short yrs ago I went back to college to take a Music Fundamentals class to learn about chords, triads, intervals, sheet music, circle of fifths ... some of the very basics of music. We used the 'Circle Of Fifths' extensively .... I learned to quickly and accurately draw the 'Circle' complete with all the Majors, minors, accidentals, enharmonics, etc. I would draw the circle from scratch with no notes within about 3 to 4 minutes every morning when I got out of bed and I got to where I could explain it pretty well (still can). Then during the first few minutes of each exam in the course (we had at least one test each week) I did that drawing from scrach in the first few minutes of exam time and then used the drawing to answer dozens and dozens of questions asked on the exam given that day. (I also made a grade of 120 out of a possible 100 in the course and was given a free pass on the final exam). I have used that 'Circle' every day since in getting a better understanding of basic and practical music applications.

But, until Mike's statement above - I had never slowed down enough to realize the reason it is called the 'Circle of Fifths'. "Basically, you move up a fifth from each note. If you start on C, then the next 5th up is G."

Thanks for that explanation Mike.

Phil

mdgodaat - Posted - 12/21/2009:  03:31:51


Make sure you put Earl's Breakdown in your list. One of my all time fav's.

Greg Connor - Posted - 12/21/2009:  07:04:30


I understand what you're talking about and I know its true, but for myself at least, it's probabably the most difficult way of looking at playing a song that I can imagine.

I think I'm saying this more as a short coming on my part than aything. My hat's off to you guys. I don't know how you do it, and still make it sound like music.

The chord pattern going from II to V is very common especially in country music. I guess I just never thought about it, but now I'm thinking you are right. I can't think of a single instance when it doesn't go from II to V.

Just out of curiousity, Do you actively think along these lines when you're playing? Do you consciously think you are in the I, IV, V position? I'm just curious.

Don't worry, the problem is mine. I was told long ago that I'm not like the others. Repeatedly!


Edited by - Greg Connor on 12/21/2009 07:14:48

Jim T - Posted - 12/21/2009:  07:14:40


quote:
Originally posted by Greg Connor

I understand what you're talking about and I know its true, but for myself at least, it's probabably the most difficult way of looking at playing a song that I can imagine.

I think I'm saying this more as a short coming on my part than aything. My hat's off to you guys. I don't know how you do it, and still make it sound like music.

The chord pattern going from II to V is very common especially in country music. I guess I just never thought about it, but now I'm thinking you are right. I can't think of a single instance when it doesn't go from II to V.

Just out of curiousity, Do you actively think along these lines when you're playing? Do you contiously think you are in the I, IV, V position? I'm just curious.

Don't worry, the problem is mine. I was told long ago that I'm not like the others. Repeatedly!





Greg, I just watched your video on your home page and it looks to me like what you do is working just fine for you.

Jim

Greg Connor - Posted - 12/21/2009:  07:27:26


Thanks for the vote of confidence Jim. Thanks for watching my little video too, and commenting on it. I appreciate that.

Intertestingly enough, that song on the video has the chord progression that you guys are talking about going from II to V.

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/21/2009:  08:18:47


quote:
Originally posted by Greg Connor

............Do you actively think along these lines when you're playing? Do you consciously think you are in the I, IV, V position? I'm just curious......



Greg,

I can only speak for me ..... in the early days of learning about songs, chords, chord progressions, timing, etc.... the answer is YES! I did and I do think about the I, IV V.... the II - V .... the I III IV... to get the music going and stay with the program. I believe that if I had learned music (playing) at an early age all this would be second nature. This is a learning process for me. I understand that for seasoned musicians it seems remote to think of music in terms of I IV V , etc.

In my mind and in my experience the next stage is far removed from all that analysis - it is FEELING the music and being in it instead of analyzing it. This feeling part is the fun part - hard for me to describe but beautiful to experience. I strongly suspect that you advanced musicians are in the feeling part of music.... the good stuff.

It is hard to describe to a seasoned author who has published novels that I am learning the a, b, c's and putting sentences together that lead to paragraphs, pages and eventually books.

BTW... I have enjoyed your songs (all of them) and especially your video and song about Rocky Mountain National Park "Cry Of Love".

Merry Christmas to you guys up there in Duluth...and to everyone.

Phil

minstrelmike - Posted - 12/21/2009:  12:43:08


I only play two songs that go 2-4 but there are probably others. Billy Joel's Only the Good Die Young and Jimmy Buffet's My Head Hurts, My Feet Stink and I Don't Love Jesus. Those songs rarely show up at jams.

Klondike Waldo - Posted - 12/21/2009:  13:06:34


quote:
Originally posted by Greg Connor

snip

Just out of curiousity, Do you actively think along these lines when you're playing? Do you consciously think you are in the I, IV, V position? I'm just curious.

snip



I did when I was first learning Music Theory at the same time I was playing in a "Banjo Band" at Your Father's Mustache. We did not use any sheet music and we changed keys for tunes all the time, so as the tuba player, I had to hear my way through I IV V7 ii V, vi IV II V7 in all sorts of keys all the time until it became second nature. Now I pretty much just hear it without labeling it.

stillearning - Posted - 12/21/2009:  14:49:35


Also a thanks to Mike. A light went on. So thats why it is called a "Circle of Fifths.: Duh.

Dave.

ELWOOD - Posted - 12/21/2009:  17:52:02


You all did some powerful learning right in front of my eyes, I am so pleased that this group loves what i love, a good honest tune,played with the mind and the heart / Bravo all

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/21/2009:  19:21:15


quote:
Originally posted by ELWOOD

You all did some powerful learning right in front of my eyes, I am so pleased that this group loves what i love, a good honest tune,played with the mind and the heart / Bravo all


ELWOOD,

I agree there have been some very good learning points in this thread: II resolves to V in many cases; V resolves to I in many cases; I - III - IV is a common progression when there is a III; a simple explanation of the logic for the name 'Circle of Fifths'; and other points. One thing that strikes me about many of the points I learn about music is the simplicity of each point when I really 'get it'. I've often compared this music learning process to a jigsaw puzzle and as pieces come together - each one seems to be kind of like: Duh! that was easy!

Phil


Edited by - Kemo Sabe on 12/21/2009 19:22:51

minstrelmike - Posted - 12/22/2009:  06:07:40


Here's the banjo exercise that will open up the neck for those of y'all who grokked the circle of fifths. This puts the theory into the fingertips of your left hand.

1. There are 3 major chord forms on the banjo: D-shape, F-shape and barre.
There are also 3 minor shapes but the best way to use them is to know the relative minor relationships because you rarely go from G to
Gm but instead usually go from G to Em or C to Am

2. Minors: D-shape==>B minor F-shape==>Dminor barre==>Eminor 0000==>2002 and 2222 become 4224
The bluegrass pickers will notice that those are most of their licks. Sally Goodin at frets 7-9 is D-shape.

3. Learn the 1-4-5 progressions by shape.
a. Start with F-shape. G at the 5th fret [5435]. C [5555] D regular [4234]
b. start with D-shape D, G [5435] and A [2222]
c. start with the barre. Use C barre 5 and find C,F,G chords.

4. Learn to switch between the three starting positions: F-,D- or barre, going up and going down doing a 1-4-1-5: 1-4-5-1 pattern.
For example, (frets are on the 1st string)

G(5) C(5) G(5) D(4) | G(5) C(5) now move up D(7) G(9)
then
G(9) C(10) G(9) D(7) | G(9) C(10) D(12) G(12)
keep going....

==========================
Now, see if you can walk up the neck from a barre A doing just fourths without thinking about the chord name. That means from the barre, you make the 4th chord. From that subsequent shape (it _will_ be one of the 3 possible shapes), you make the 4th of it. You can go up and down by fourths and fifths faster by finger than by thinking about the chord names.

Mike Moxcey

CosmicMaskedAvenger - Posted - 12/22/2009:  14:14:39


if you are playing with I IV V and something doesn't sound exactly right,

often when moving from I to V you can use the II 7th to transition.

And if you hear something 'minor' it's often the minor VI.

Bob Peelstrom - Posted - 12/22/2009:  19:02:04


CosmicMaskedAvenger brought up a good point: the I - ii - V can be a very cool substitution for plain old I - V. A good example of this can be found in "Eddie's Bounce" (or "To the Rescue"). That Am chord is just there for one beat, but it makes a heck of an impression.

One word of caution: if you mention a Two Chord at a jam, you'll be pegged as a city slicker. You're better off referring to it as the "off chord."

-bp-

minstrelmike - Posted - 12/23/2009:  07:10:09


quote:
One word of caution: if you mention a Two Chord at a jam, you'll be pegged as a city slicker. You're better off referring to it as the "off chord."
We name the 'two' chord a lot and usually use the 'off' chord to mean a minor (but not the minor sixth) or the three chord (Freight Train progression).

Of course, we live in a slick city.

Mike Moxcey
Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/23/2009:  09:17:15


OK guys - help me with this 'off chord' idea. If I am at a jam and somebody says we are going to have an 'off chord' .... I would probably say excuse me but which off chord are we talking about. If I was calling a song we are about to play I might say something like... We are going to play this in the Key of _____ & this song has a II chord; or this song has a relative minor (meaning a vi chord); or this song has an 'a minor' (which would be ii in Key of G); or I might say this song has an 'off chord' and then identify that 'off chord' as an 'A Chord' if we are in the key of G.

Don't you have to identify what the 'off chord' will be?



minstrelmike - Posted - 12/23/2009:  09:40:54


Yes, we always identify what the off chord is, but many times how we say it is different. If it's the 2 chord, most of the time most jammers will say 'two.' But if it is the 3 chord or a minor 2nd or minor sixth, they'll often name the chord what it is in whatever key we are in. This however depends on the person leading the song because if they have a capo on, they'll say something different than if they don't.

It's odd. heh heh. The important concept to get is that 1-4-5 is _the_ basis and that those chords will not be discussed except maybe to say it goes 1 4 1 4 1 4 5 in that Steve Goodman/Jimmy Buffet kind of way.

For example, we're playing Old Home Place in A.

issue #1: it has both a 2 AND a 3 chord in it. Thus we say it's got a two but that ain't the oddest thing about the song. (The two comes in the 1st or 2nd most normal place for it in a song).

issue #2: We're playing it in A. Everyone will tell you the song is in A, even the ones who have capos on. If there are folks who don't understand capos, someone will say, "G capo 2."
However, not very many folks will say it has a Three chord.

The mandolinist says the odd chord is C# if he's leading the song.
The banjoist with the capo on will say it's got a B chord. If folks look confused, the bass player will correct him. The fiddler will say chords don't matter no how just play the danged song and the dobro player will hit him in the nose with his bar saying shut up we're trying to and no one's paying attention and chaos ensues.

That's just one example.

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/23/2009:  10:51:08


Mike

That all makes a lot of sense to me and you have used a great song (Old Home Place) for your explanation. I agree that not many folks would say ..we have a III in this song. That particular song is a great song to learn for a lot of reasons including the II and the III Chords. Going back to earlier comments in this thread that song is a great example of where the II resolves to the V, the III leads to the IV and the song is beautiful. Another thing I particularly like about that song - I find it is a wonderful song where knowing the chord patterns eliminates a lot of head scratching. The other day a guy called the song for the Key of Bb (yeah, I know who plays that song in Bb) and since I know the pattern for the chords I did not need to discuss II - V or I - III - IV. I capoed to Bb and played the pattern. Salty Dog Blues is another great song to learn patterns for - then the key doesn't matter. Well, I guess this goes for any and all songs and might head this thread into another interesting topic.

I also suppose - going back to the start of this thread - that if someone says we are going to have an 'off chord' which will be a II chord - I can be thinking we will most likely be headed to the V chord from there. And if he did happen to fess up that a III chord is in there I can expect a IV to follow in most cases.

Thanks for your explanation.

Phil

spaz - Posted - 12/23/2009:  11:16:55


you guys have brought up something that i've often wondered about... how do you refer to a song's key if you're using a capo? It seems from the comments that maybe whether a capo is used or not it should be irrelevant.. but just last night i played with someone on guitar and said lets play some song in G and he said, oh, i'll capo to 3rd and play an E, since it will be a G for you.. and I looked puzzled.. after a couple go-rounds on this i finally said, 'um, i dont care how you finger the chord, just play a G". I said it nicely though.. and i didnt have my dobro bar so I didnt hit him in the nose..
I guess to be fair, I've heard people use the term "position", ie Ive heard that maybelle carter liked the C chord form so she'd usually capo in such a way that she could finger a C for the base chord, but it seems odd to use that in reference to how a song is actually played... ?

minstrelmike - Posted - 12/23/2009:  11:36:59


Capo 3 and play E chord to make a concert G chord works. Three ways to think about it (at least)
1. Just add three steps (for the three frets) of the chromatic scale to find the key: E : F , F#, G
or 2. Think one step at a time. If I capoed 1 and played an E, then I'd actually be playing an F and then count up from there.
or 3. Know your chords independent of the capo (to ascertain the key) and then look at where you'd want to put the capo to make the fingering easier.

My example is playing in the key of E on the banjo in open G tuning. I spike the 5th string up 4 to B regardless but I will often play blues open, will do old-timey sorts of songs out of D shapes so I capo two or I'd do bluegrass/melodic fingerpicking stuff out of C shapes so I'd capo 4. Everything is still played in E.

Going backwards, I make the higher E chord (2 frets up from D) 6456.
Play that on the banjo and it is an E chord. Put a capo on the 2nd fret and it is -still- an E chord (concert E which is what a piano would want to know) but in relation to the capo, it is now a D chord and I can think of it or better yet just use it that way without thinking. Put a capo on the 4th fret means I have to raise my Index finger to make this chord in relation to the capo 2012 but it is still a concert E because I haven't actually changed any notes.

Kemo Sabe - Posted - 12/23/2009:  11:37:11


spaz,

You have a good topic there about 'What Key'? Tell you what - when I am at a jam I want to know ONE THING: What key are we going to play the song in. Let me decide what 'position' I will play in and whether I want to use a capo. Just tell me what key the song is in and let's do it. I know how to play three positions, and I know how to place the capo - the problem I have seen at jams from time to time is that the guy doesn't know what key he wants to play the song in - he just knows he wants to Capo ___ and do this or that, therefore we must be in ___ key. I don't wanyt to hear all that. I just want the Key for the song.

(Yeah, you have hit a nerve in me with that question)!!!

Phil


Edited by - Kemo Sabe on 12/23/2009 12:25:56

spaz - Posted - 12/23/2009:  12:28:43




Hi Phil, I like hitting nerves..

I debated starting a new thread, but something came up and then i was distracted and then i was lazy...

It seems that if someone has memorized a song in a particular key based on the chord names, then a simple way to think about it is to play the same chord form and just capo to move the key. ie maybe my guitar friend knew the song in E only. I could see this being the case when learning from written music. The way I find myself trying to do it is 'transpose' the written chords to something like nashville numbering system and then memorize that progression instead. That seems easier for my brain than trying to 'calculate the difference' needed to reach a certain key. I think this is related to the different ways of thinking about it that mike listed.

spaz - Posted - 12/23/2009:  13:15:00


you know, ever since i've been following this thread there is a song i cant get out of my mind..

the first song is good too, but the one I'm thinking of starts right at around 2:00 in..
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDFW1k5nzTM

.. who knows, maybe there's a II -> V progression in there somewheres..

Klondike Waldo - Posted - 12/23/2009:  13:58:28


The key a song is in is not dependent on use of a capo. If the guitar like to play out of E, capoed 3, it still sounds G. You can bet the fiddler is not going to capo. Sometimes the decision to capo up is not made because the player knows the song in only one key- there are others reasons as well. I'll capo on guitar if the chorus is singing in F or C because I have a problem with my left index finger that makes an F chord tough to hold- so I'll Capo 3 and play out of D for F, play out of A for C.

RGJR - Posted - 01/05/2010:  16:52:05


So now you've figured out that the II goes to a V. What goes to a II, then? Figure that out, and then use it to add color to your song. (It's a VI, by the way.) When you know you're going I-II-V, zip in a VI or a vi right before you go to the II.

The major chord is usually written in CAPS, the minor in lower-case. Thus, either a "ii" or a "II" can go to a "v" or a "V". Similarly, a major or minor 6 will go to a major or minor 2.

I love the banjo, but am much more accomplished on piano. When I was first learning southern gospel piano, I used to "V7" my way from one chord to the next, then 7th-ing that chord to the next, etc., until I'd played every chord all the way around the circle of 5ths. I did the same thing on the banjo, to get used to how the chords worked together.

RGJR - Posted - 01/05/2010:  16:53:34


Whoops... it looks like a lot of guys already hit this! I didn't see this second page. Sorry to be redundant!

Hide these ads: join the Players Union!

Hangout Network Help

View All Topics  |  View Categories

0.078125